تحلیل و اولویت‌بندی ابعاد مؤثر در ادراک گردشگران رویداد بزرگداشت فردوسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت گردشگری، دانشکدۀ علوم گردشگری، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده علوم گردشگری، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، تهران؛

4 استادیار، برنامه‌ریزی توریسم، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران؛

چکیده

گردشگری رویداد یکی از عوامل انگیزشی مهم در گردشگری است که در برنامه‌های توسعه و بازاریابی اکثر مناطق، عاملی مهم به‌شمار می‌رود. درصورتی که مدیران و برنامه‌ریزان در تمامی سطوح و تمامی اشکال گردشگری، توسعه‌ای تک‌بعدی را مدنظر قرار دهند و بدون توجه به ذی‌نفعان اقدام به توسعه کنند، قادر نخواهند بود جاذبه‌ای پایدار ایجاد کنند و دستیابی به اهداف متنوع توسعة رویداد امکان‌پذیر نخواهد شد.
پژوهش حاضر، در راستای برنامه‌ریزی توسعه و بازاریابی منطقه‌ای و دستیابی به توسعة چندبعدی با هدف تحلیل ابعاد مؤثر در ادراک گردشگران رویدادهای فرهنگی با استفاده از روش‌شناسی ترکیبی و روش توصیفی ـ پیمایشی به شناسایی، اولویت‌بندی و تحلیل ابعاد مختلف موفقیت مؤلفه‌های مؤثر در ادراک گردشگران پرداخته است. ‌بدین‌منظور ابعاد گوناگونی که پژوهش‌های پیشین ارائه کرده‌اند، واکاوی و به‌دست خبرگان دسته‌بندی و از طریق تحلیل کیفی و هم‌مفهوم‌سازی، ابعاد مؤثر در ادراک گردشگران رویداد استخراج شد. سپس با مطالعة پیمایشی و با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، تعداد 350 نفر از گردشگران شرکت‌کننده در رویداد بزرگداشت فردوسی سال ۱۳۹۸ در شهر مشهد به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب و ادراک آنان از چگونگی موفقیت رویداد سنجیده شد و سپس ابعاد شناسایی‌شده با روش تاپسیس فازی تجزیه‌وتحلیل، دسته‌بندی و اولویت‌بندی شد.
تحلیل نهایی مؤلفه‌های تبیین‌کنندة ادراک گردشگران از رویداد بزرگداشت فردوسی بیانگر این مهم است که ادراک تعاملی ـ اجتماعی مهم‌ترین اولویت برای گردشگران است. در رتبة دوم اهمیت، درک فردی قرار دارد که می‌تواند خود را در رضایت فردی، حس امید و کیفیت مدنظر از رویداد نشان دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing and Prioritizing the Dimensions Affecting the Tourist’s Perception of the Ferdowsi Commemoration Event

نویسندگان [English]

  • فرزانه خوشه بست 1
  • Abdul Reza Rokn al-Din Eftekhari 2
  • Manoochehr Jahanian 3
  • Mojtaba Javdan 4
1 PhD student, Tourism Management, Faculty of Tourism Sciences, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran;
2 Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran ;
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Tourism Sciences, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran;
4 Assistant Professor, Tourism Planning, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran;
چکیده [English]

Event tourism is one of the important motivational factors in tourism, which is important in the development and marketing programs of most regions. If managers at all levels and in all forms of tourism, consider one-dimensional development and develop without considering the stakeholders, they will not be able to create sustainable attractions and achieve various goals.
The present study in order to plan regional development and marketing and achieve multidimensional development with the aim of analyzing the dimensions affecting tourists' perception of cultural events using a combined methodology and descriptive-survey method to identify, prioritize and analyze Various dimensions of success have dealt with the factors affecting the perception of tourists.
 For this purpose, we analyzed and categorized by help of experts, and through qualitative analysis and conceptualization, the various dimensions presented by previous researches; and extracted dimensions affecting the perception of tourists of the even. Then, by conducting a survey study and using Cochran's formula, we selected 350 tourists participating in the Ferdowsi commemoration event in Mashhad in 1998 as a sample and analyzed Analyzed, categorized and prioritized their perception of how successful the event was and then the dimensions identified by fuzzy TOPSIS method.
The final analysis of the components explaining the perception of tourists from the Ferdowsi commemoration event indicates that it is important that interactive-social perception is the most important priority for tourists. In the second place is the importance of personal perception that can show itself in personal satisfaction, good hope and quality of the event

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tourist’s Perception
  • Event tourism
  • Event Success
  • Cultural Events
  • Ferdowsi Commemoration
اصغرپور، محمد جواد (1388). تصمیم‌گیری چند معیاره، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
حافظ‌نیا، محمدرضا (1385). مقدمه‌ای بر روش تحقیق در علوم انسانی، تهران: سازمان مطالعه و تدوین کتب علوم انسانی (سمت).
عطائی، محمد (1389). تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره فازی. انتشارات دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، چاپ اول.
غزنوی، محسن (1396). سند راهبردی باززنده‌سازی توس در افق 1400 خورشیدی. شهرداری منطقۀ 12 مشهد مقدس.
نادعلی‌پور، زهرا و چیتی، ندا (1396). «تحلیل رقابت‌پذیری گردشگری ایران با تأکید بر ادراک گردشگران، مطالعة موردی: گردشگران اروپایی ورودی به ایران». نشریة گردشگری و توسعه، سال ششم، شمارة 4 (پیاپی 13، زمستان 1396)، صفحات ۸۲-105.
نظری، محسن، قادری، زاهد، و فضلوی، سیده فروزنده (1394). «بررسی تأثیر عوامل مؤثر بر اجرای موفق رویدادهای فرهنگی از دیدگاه گردشگران». نشریة مدیریت دولتی دانشکدة مدیریت دانشگاه تهران، دورة 7، شمارة 4، صفحات ۶۹۹-720.
Anastassova, L, (2017). “Destination experience perception versus tourist expectations based on destination image  in their minds: empirical studyˮ, Conference Proceedings, 7th Advanced Tourism Marketing Conference, Casablanca, Morocco
Atkinson, J. (2016). What motivates stakeholders’ engagement with music festivals?. Cardiff Metropolitan University, P. 61
Backman, K. F., Backman, S. J., Uysal, M., & Sunshine, K. M. (1995). “Event tourism: An examination of motivations and activitiesˮ. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 3(1), 15– 24.
Bagdare, Shilpa (2016). “A Conceptual Framework for Management of Tourism E,xperienceˮ, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), 2(6), 718-722.
Balli, S., & Korukglu, S. (2009). “Operating system selection using fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS methods”. Mathematical and Computational Applications, 14(2), 243-252
Boonpat, O., & Suvachart, N. (2014). “Tourist Expectation and Tourist Experience in Cultural Tourismˮ. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 3(2), 124-132
Chen, Y.-F., & Mo, H.-E. (2014). “A survey of push and pull motivations of green event touristsˮ. International Journal of Information & Education Technology, 4(3), 260–263. doi:10.7763/IJIET.2014.V4.409
Cohen, E. (1979). “A phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociologyˮ, 13(2), 179–201.
Crompton, J.L. (1995). “Economic impact analysis of sports facilities and events: eleven sources of misapplicationˮ. Journal of Sport Management, 9(1), 14–35.
Crompton, J. L., & McKay, S. L. (1997). “Motives of visitors attending festival eventsˮ. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 425–439. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(97)80010-2
Feifer, M. (1985). Going places: the ways of the tourist from imperial Rome to the present day, Macmillan, London
Fenich, G. G. (2018). Meetings, expositions, events, and conventions: An introduction to theindustry. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Getz, D. (1991). Festivals, special events, and tourism. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Getz, D. (1997). Event management & event tourism. Cognizant Communication Corp.
Getz, D. (2008). “Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and researchˮ. Tourism management, 29(3), 403-428.
Gilmore H. J., & Pine, B. J. (2002). “Differentiating hospitality operation via experience: why selling services is not enough”. Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 43(3), 87-96
Guha, S. (2009). Motivational push factors for visiting reenactment sites (Master’s thesis).
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, Publication No. 3704.
Hernández-Mogollón, J. M., Folgado-Fernández, J. A., & Duarte, P. A. O. (2014). “Event tourism analysis and state of the artˮ. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 5(2), 83-102.
Kaplanidou, K., & Vogt, CH. (2010). “The Meaning and measurement of a sport event experience among active sport touristsˮ. Journal of Sport Management, 24(5), 544-566.
Kaplanidou, K., Karadakis, K., Gibson, H., Thapa, B., Walker, M., Geldenhuys, S., & Coetzee, W. (2013). “Quality of life, event impacts, and mega-event support among
South African residents before and after the 2010 FIFA world cupˮ. Journal of Travel Research, 52, 631–645.
Kose, H., Argan, M. T., & Argan, M. (2011). “Special event management and event marketing: A case study of TKBL all star 2011 in Turkeyˮ. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 8, 1.‏
Li, Y. N., & Wood, E. H. (2016). “Music festival motivation in China: Free the mindˮ. Leisure Studies, 35(3), 332–351. doi:10.1080/02614367.2014.962588
MacCannell, D. (1973). “Staged authenticity: Arrangements of social space in tourist settingsˮ. American Journal of Sociology, 79(3), 589–603.
Mihaly, C. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety: Experiencing flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mihaly, C. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: HarperPerennial.
Mohr, K., Backman, K. F., Gahan, L. W., & Backman, S. J. (1993). “An investigation of festival motivations and events satisfaction by visitor typeˮ. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 1(3), 89–97
Morgan, M. (2008). “What makes a good festival? Understanding the event experienceˮ, journal of event management, 12, 81-93
Mossberg, L. (2007). “A marketing approach to the tourist experienceˮ. Scandinavian journal of hospitality and tourism, 7(1), 59-74
Moscardo, G. (2009). “Understanding tourist experience through mindfulness theoryˮ. In M. Kozak, A. DcCrop (Eds.) Handbook of Tourist Behavior (pp. 99-115).London: Routledge.
Nicholson, R. E., & Pearce, D. G. (2001). “Why do people attend events: A comparative analysis of visitor motivations at four South Island eventsˮ, Journal of Travel Research, 39(4), 449-460.
Oklobd zija, S. (2015). “The role of events in tourism developmentˮ. Bizinfo (Blace), 6(2), 83–97. doi:10.5937/bizinfo1502083o
Otto, J. E., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1996). “The service experience in tourismˮ. Tourism Management, 17(3), 165–174.
O’Sullivan, E. L., & Spangler, K. J. (1998). Experience marketing-strategies for new millennium. Venture publishing, Inc. State College
Pearce, P. (1982). The social psychology of tourist behavior, international series in experiential psychology, 3, Pergamon, Oxford.
Pine, B.J., & Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The Experience Economy. Harvard University Press, Harvard.
Quan, S., & Wang, N. (2004). “Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: an illustration from food experience in tourismˮ, tourism management, 25, 297-305.
Quintal, V., Soutar, G., Phau, I., & Sood, A. (2020): “Exploringpersonality and fit for garden festivals and parks: A Best-Worst Scaling approachˮ, Current Issues inTourism, 24(12), 1686-1702. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1798894
Rao, V. (2001). “Celebrations as social investments: Festival expenditures, unit price variation and social status in rural Indiaˮ. The Journal of Development Studies, 38(1), 71–97
Ryan, C. (Ed.) (1997). The tourist experience: A new introduction, London: Cassell
Ma, S. C., Egan, D., Rotherham, I., & Ma, S. M. (2011). “A framework for monitoring during the planning stage for a sports mega-eventˮ. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(1), 79-96.‏
Couto, U. S., Lai Tang, W. S., & Boyce, P. (2017). “What makes a motorsports event enjoyable? The case of Macau Grand Prixˮ. In Journal of Convention & Event Tourism (Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 26-40). Routledge
Silver, J. R. (2004). Professional event coordination. Hoboken
Smith, V. (1987). Hosts and guests, Blackwells, Oxford.
Smith, S., Costello, C., & Muenchen, R. A. (2010). “Influence of push and pull motivations on satisfaction and behavioral intentions within a culinary tourism eventˮ. Journal of quality assurance in hospitality & tourism11(1), 17-35.‏
Sternberg, E. (1997). “The iconography of the tourism experienceˮ, Annals of tourism research, 24(4), 951-969.
Swaine, M. B., & Momsen, J. H. (2002). Gender/Tourism/Fun (tourism dynamics). Elmsford, NY: Cognizant Communication.
Tian Cole, SH., & Chancellor, H.CH. (2008). “Examining the festival attributes that impact visitor experience, satisfaction and re-visit intentionˮ. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 15(4), 323–333
Trauer, B., & Ryan, C. (2005). “Destination Image, Romance and Place Experience—an Application of Intimacy Theory in Tourismˮ. Tourism Management, 26, 481-491.
Turco, D.M., & Kelsey, C.W. (1992). Conducting economic impact studies of recreational and parks special events. Washington, DC: National Recreation and parks Association.
Uriely, N., (2005). “The tourist experience: Conceptual developmentsˮ. Annals of tourism research, 32(1), 199-216.
Vajirakachorn, T., & Chongwatpol, J. (2017). “Application of business intelligence in the tourism industry: A case study of a local food festival in Thailandˮ. Tourism Management Perspectives, 23, 75–86. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2017.05.003
Van Zyl, C. (2004). “Motivating factors of local residents for attending the Aardklop National Arts Festivalˮ. Southern African Business Review, 10(2), 150–171. doi:10.3727/
1525995031436818
Viviers, P. A., & Slabbert, E. (2014). “Should arts festivals focus on push or pull factors in marketing efforts?ˮ African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation & Dance, 3(2), 1–18.
Vroom, V.H. (1964). “work and motivation on motivation: Wileyˮ, 1964.331p. (Carnegie institute. Technology, Pittsburg.PAJ
Wong, M. (2013). “A Study on Traveler Expectation, Motivation and Attitudeˮ. Contemporary Management Research, 9(2), 172
Wicks, B. E, & Fesenmaier, D. R. (1993). “A comparison of visitor and vendor perceptions of Service quality at a special eventˮ. Festival management event tourism, 1(1), 19-26
Williams, P.W., Dossa, K.A., & Tompkins, L. (1995). “Volunteerism and apecial event management: a case study of whistler’s men’s wold cup of skingˮ. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 3, 83-95
Yi, X., Fu, X., Jin, W., & Okumus, F. (2018). “Constructing a model of exhibition attachment: Motivation, attachment, and loyaltyˮ. Tourism Management, 65, 224–236. doi: 10. 1016/j.tourman.2017.10.006
Yolal, M., C.¸ etinel, F., & Uysal, M. (2009). “An examination of festival motivation and perceived benefits relationship: Eskis ¸ehir International Festivalˮ. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 10(4), 276–291. doi:10.1080/15470140903372020
Yoon, Y-S., Lee, J-S., & Lee, C-K. (2010). “Measuring festival quality and value affecting visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty using a structural approachˮ. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 29, 335–342
Yuan, Y. Y. (2013). “Adding environmental sustainability to the management of event tourismˮ. International Journal of Culture, Tourism & Hospitality Research, 7(2), 175–183. doi: 10.1108/IJCTHR-04-2013-0024
Ye, Y., Su, C. H., Tsai, C. H., & Hung, J. L. (2020). “Motivators of attendance at eco-friendly eventsˮIn Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 21(5), p. 417-437, Routledge