تعیین روابط علی درگیری ذهنی و قصد رفتاری گردشگران رویداد ورزشی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت ورزشی؛ دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار مدیریت ورزشی؛ دانشکده تربیت بدنی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران

3 عضو هیات علمی گروه تربیت بدنی دانشکذه علوم انسانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

10.22034/jtd.2019.172208.1657

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر تعیین روابط علی درگیری ذهنی و قصد رفتاری گردشگران رویداد ورزشی با ملاحظه نقش میانجی تصویر مقصد و رضایت و همچنین اثر تعدیلگری همراهان سفر بود. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و براساس روش گردآوری داده‌ها از نوع ‌توصیفی- پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری مورد نظر گردشگران غیرتهرانی حاضر در شهرآورد استقلال و پرسپولیس بودند. نمونه مکفی مبتنی بر نرم افزار PASS تعداد 382 نفر با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی – طبقه‌ای انتخاب و با نرم افزار Smart PLS 3 نیز مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه‌ها توسط خبرگان و آزمون‌های آماری مربوطه تأیید شد. نتایج تحلیل داده‌ها نشان داد که درگیری ذهنی گردشگران رویداد ورزشی به صورت مستقیم بر قصد رفتاری آنان اثرگذار نبود اما به صورت غیر مستقیم با لحاظ نمودن تصویر مقصد و رضایت‌مندی گردشگران این اثر به عنوان میانجی کامل معنادار گزارش شد. علاوه بر این همراهان سفر به عنوان تعدیلگر شدت رابطه بین تصویر مقصد و رضایت گردشگران رویداد ورزشی را به صورت معناداری تحت تأثیر قرار داد. بنابراین، می‌توان به مسؤولین برگزاری رویداد ورزشی این نکته مهم را یادآور شد که به منظور تأثیرگذاری و جهت‌دهی بر قصد رفتاری گردشگران ورزشی در راستای تقویت استراتژی جذب و حفظ آنان بیش از پیش بر ویژگی‌های مقصد (تسهیلات بهداشتی – رفاهی، جذابیت‌ها و ویژگی‌های زیباشناختی پیرامون رویداد، فراهم کردن محیطی امن برای حضور) و جنبه‌های روانشناختی گردشگران رویداد ورزشی توجه نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the causal relationships between involvement and behavioral intentions of sports event tourists

نویسندگان [English]

  • Erfan Moradi 1
  • Ali reza Elahi 2
  • marjan saffari 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Sport Management; Tarbiat Modares University
2 Associate Professor Department of Sport Management Faculty of Sport Sciences Kharazmi University
3 human sciences, physical education faculty, Tarbiat modarres university
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships between Involvement and behavioral intentions of sport event tourists considering the role of mediator of destination image and satisfaction as well as the moderating effect of travel companions. The present study is applied regarding purpose and descriptive-survey, based on the method of collecting the data. The statistical population was included non-Tehranian tourists present in the derby between Esteghlal and Persepolis. The sampling method was selected based on PASS software (382) using stratified random sampling, and they were also analyzed using Smart PLS 3 software. The questionnaire’s validity and reliability were confirmed by experts and Related statistical tests. The results of data analysis showed that involvement of sports event tourists did not directly affect on their behavioral intention, but indirectly, considering the destination image and satisfaction of tourists, this effect was reported as a significant full mediator. Additionally, travel companions as a moderator of the severity of the relationship between the destination image and the sports tourists' satisfaction significantly affected. Therefore, to the authorities of the sports event organizer could point out that in order to influence and direction the behavioral intention of sports tourists in order to strengthen the strategy of absorbing and retaining them, more than just the past to consider on the destination features (Sanitary - welfare facilities, attractions and aesthetic features around the event, provide a safe environment for attendance) and psychological aspects of sports event tourists.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Involvement
  • behavioral intentions
  • Sports event tourists
خطیب‌زاده، مهدی، کوزه‌چیان، هاشم و هنرور، افشار (1395). «رابطۀ ادراک از کیفیت خدمات با رضایت‌مندی و تمایل به بازگشت گردشگران ورزشی حاضر در شهرآورد استقلال و پرسپولیس»، فصلنامۀ مدیریت و توسعۀ ورزش. دورۀ 5، شمارۀ 1، ص 169-184.
مرادی، عرفان، الهی، علیرضا و صفاری، مرجان (1396). پیش‌بینی‌ها و پیامدهای رضایت‌مندی گردشگران رویداد ورزشی، پایان‌نامۀ انتشارنیافتۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ تربیت‌بدنی دانشگاه خوارزمی.
Alexandris, K. (2016). “Testing the role of sport event personality on the development of event involvement and loyalty: The case of mountain running races”. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 7(1), 2-20.
Antón, C., Camarero, C., & Laguna-García, M. (2017). “Towards a new approach of destination loyalty drivers: Satisfaction, visit intensity and tourist motivations”. Current Issues in Tourism. 20(3), 238-260.
Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). “Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions”. Annals of Tourism Research. 27(3), 785-804.
Beaton, A. A., Funk, D. C., Ridinger, L., & Jordan, J. (2011). “Sport involvement: A conceptual and empirical analysis”. Sport Management Review. 14(2), 126-140.
Brown, C. (2012). Predicting Expenditure Patterns Based on Motivations to Travel for Active Sport Tourists.University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Brown, G., Smith, A., & Assaker, G. (2016). “Revisiting the host city: An empirical examination of sport involvement, place attachment, event satisfaction and spectator intentions at the London Olympics”. Tourism Management. 55, 160-172.
Candrea, A. N., & Ispas, A. (2010). “Promoting Tourist Destinations Through Sport Events. The Case of Braşov”. Revista de Turism-Studii Si Cercetari in Turism. (10), 61–67.
Chalip, L., Green, B. C., & Hill, B. (2003). “Effects of Sport Event Media on Destination Image and Intention to Visit”. Journal of Sport Management. 17(3), 214-234.
Chang, S., Gibson, H., & Sisson, L. (2016). “The role of satisfaction and involvement in loyalty: Comparing residents and tourists”. Travel and Tourism Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally.
Chen, N., & Funk, D. C. (2010). “Exploring Destination Image, Experience and Revisit Intention: A Comparison of Sport and Non-Sport Tourist Perceptions”. Journal of Sport & Tourism. 15(3), 239-259.
Chen, J. S., Wang, W., & Prebensen, N. K. (2016). “Travel companions and activity preferences of nature-based tourists”. Tourism Review. 71(1), 45-56.
Del Bosque, I. R., & San Martín, H. (2008). “Tourist satisfaction a cognitive-affective model”.  Annals of Tourism Research. 35(2), 551-573.
Devesa, M., Laguna, M., & Palacios, A. (2010). “The role of motivation in visitor satisfaction: Empirical evidence in rural tourism”. Tourism Management. 31(4), 547-552.
Filo, K., Chen, N., King, C., & Funk, D. C. (2013). “Sport Tourists’ Involvement with a Destination: A Stage-Based Examination”. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 37(1), 100-124.
Foroughi, B., Nikbin, D., Hyun, S. S., & Iranmanesh, M. (2016). “Impact of core product quality on sport fans’ emotions and behavioral intentions”. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 17(2), 110-129.
Funk, D. C., Ridinger, L. L., & Moorman, A. M. (2004). “Exploring Origins of Involvement: Understanding the Relationship between Consumer Motives and Involvement with Professional Sport Teams”. Leisure Sciences. 26(1), 35-61.
Getz, D. (2008). “Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research”. Tourism management. 29(3), 403-428.
Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). “Progress and prospects for event tourism research”. Tourism Management. 52, 593-631.
Gibson, H. J., Willming, C., & Holdnak, A. (2003). “Small-scale event sport tourism: fans as tourists”. Tourism management. 24(2), 181-190.
Giulianotti, R., Armstrong, G., Hales, G., & Hobbs, D. (2015). “Sport Mega-Events and Public Opposition: A Sociological Study of the London 2012 Olympics”. Journal of Sport & Social Issues. 39(2), 99-119.
Gratton, C., Dobson, N., & Shibli, S. (2000). “The economic importance of major sports events: a case-study of six events”. Managing leisure. 5(1), 17-28.
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications. 1st Edition.
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications. 2nd Edition.
Hallmann, K., & Breuer, C. (2011). “Images of rural destinations hosting small-scale sport events”. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2(3), 218–244.
Havitz, M. E., & Dimanche, F. (1997). “Leisure Involvement Revisited: Conceptual Conundrums and Measurement Advances”. Journal of Leisure Research. 29(3), 245-278.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). “The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing”. New challenges to international marketing (Advances I International Marketing). 20, 277-319.
Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). “Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines”. Industrial Management & Data Systems. 116(1), 2-20.
Hwang, S. N., Lee, C., & Chen, H.-J. (2005). “The relationship among tourists’ involvement, place attachment and interpretation satisfaction in Taiwan’s national parks”. Tourism Management. 26(2), 143-156.
Jang, S., Bai, B., Hu, C., & Wu, C. M. E. (2009). “Affect, Travel Motivation, and Travel Intention: A Senior Market”. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 33(1), 51-73.
Jin, N., Lee, H., & Lee, S. (2013). “Event Quality, Perceived Value, Destination Image, and Behavioral Intention of Sports Events: The Case of the IAAF World Championship, Daegu, 2011”. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. 18(8), 849-864.
Jones, I. (2008). “Sport Fans and Spectators as Sport Tourists”. Journal of Sport & Tourism. 13(3), 161-164.
Kaplanidou, K., & Vogt, C. (2007). “The Interrelationship between Sport Event and Destination Image and Sport Tourists’ Behaviours”. Journal of Sport & Tourism. 12(3-4), 183-206.
Kaplanidou, K., Jordan, J. S., Funk, D., & Ridinger, L. L. (2012). “Recurring Sport Events and Destination Image Perceptions: Impact on Active Sport Tourist Behavioral Intentions and Place Attachment”. Journal of Sport Management. 26(3), 237-248.
Katsoni, V., & Vrondou, O. (2017). “Marketing to occasional sporting event tourists: profiles, travelling patterns, and information channels”. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 9(2), 152-168.
Kim, S. K., Park, J. A., & Kim, W. (2016). “The mediating effect of destination image on the relationship between spectator satisfaction and behavioral intentions at an international sporting event”. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. 21(3), 273-292.
Kim, Y. H., Duncan, J. L., & Jai, T.-M. (2016). “Segmenting the collegiate football game spectator: a cluster analysis approach”. Sport, Business and Management. 6(1), 76-96.
Koo, S. K. (2013). “The Effect of Destination Image, Event Image, and Satisfaction in Determining Behavioral Intention: Recurring Small-scale Event”. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).
 Kuenzel, S., & Yassim, M. (2007). “The effect of joy on the behaviour of cricket spectators: The mediating role of satisfaction”. Managing Leisure. 12(1), 43-57.
Kurtzman, J., & Zauhar, J. (1997). “A wave in time–the sports tourism phenomena”. Journal of Sport & Tourism. 4(2), 7-24.
Kurtzman, J., & Zauhar, J. (2003). “A Wave in Time-The Sports Tourism Phenomena”. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 8(1), 35-47.
Lee, C. K., & Taylor, T. (2005). “Critical reflections on the economic impact assessment of a mega-event: the case of 2002 FIFA World Cup”. Tourism management. 26(4), 595-603.
Lee, C. K., Lee, Y. K., & Lee, B.-K (2005). “Korea’s destination image formed by the 2002 World Cup”. Annals of Tourism Research. 32(4), 839-858.
Lee, J., & Beeler, C. (2009). “An Investigation of Predictors of Satisfaction and Future Intention: Links to Motivation, Involvement, and Service Quality in a Local Festival”. Event Management. 13(1), 17-29.
Lee, L. Y., & Shiu, C. (2015). “Factors affecting sport event attendance: Difference between Participants and spectators”. The Journal of International Management Studies, 10(2), 27-36.
Mehmetoglu, M. (2007). “Typologising nature-based tourists by activity—Theoretical and practical implications”. Tourism management. 28(3), 651-660.
Moon, K. S., Ko, Y. J., Connaughton, D. P., & Lee, J-H. (2013). “A mediating role of destination image in the relationship between event quality, perceived value, and behavioral intention”. Journal of Sport & Tourism. 18(1), 49-66.
Nelson, V. (2005). “Representation and Image of People, Place and Nature in Grenada’s Tourism”. Geografiska Annaler, Series B, Human Geography. 87(2), 131-143.
O'Reilly, N., Armenakyan, A., Lu, I. R., Nadeau, J., Heslop, L. A., & Cakmak, E. (2016). “Sport mega-events and tourism: contrasting the influence of host country and event”. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 16(3-6), 280-296.
Pereira, E., Mascarenhas, M., & Pires, G. (2015). “Sport events’ potentiation process at Protimao tourism resort”. Sport Tourism: New Challenges in a Globalized World, 95-104.
Prayag, G. (2009). “Tourist’ Evaluations of Destinations Image, Satisfaction, and Future Behavioral Intentions-The Case of Mauritius”. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 26(8), 836-853.
Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2012). “Antecedents of Tourists’ Loyalty to Mauritius: The Role and Influence of Destination Image, Place Attachment, Personal Involvement, and Satisfaction”. Journal of Travel Research. 51(3), 342-356.
Prayag, G., & Grivel, E. (2015). “Sport tourists' motivation, sport identity, place dependence, satisfaction and revisit intentions: The case of IWC 2012”. CAUTHE 2015: Rising Tides and Sea Changes: Adaptation and Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality. 670-673
Prebensen, N. K., Woo, E., Chen, J. S., & Uysal, M. (2013). “Motivation and involvement as antecedents of the perceived value of the destination experience”. Journal of Travel Research, 52(2), 253-264.
Priporas, C. V., Vassiliadis, C. A., Stylos, N., & Fotiadis, A. K. (2018). “The Effect of Sport Tourists' Travel Style, Destination and Event Choices, and Motivation on Their Involvement in Small-Scale Sports Events”. Event Management. 22(5), 745-765.
Ramkissoon, H., Uysal, M., & Brown, K. (2011). “Relationship between Destination Image and Behavioral Intentions of Tourists to Consume Cultural Attractions”,.Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. 20(5), 575-595.
Richter, N. F., Sinkovics, R. R., Ringle, C. M., & Schlagel, C. (2016). “A critical look at the use of SEM in international business research”. International Marketing Review. 33(3), 376-404.
Sato, M., Jordan, J. S., & Funk, D. C. (2016). “A distance-running event and life satisfaction: The mediating roles of involvement”. Sport Management Review. 19(5), 536-549.
Stevens, S., & Rosenberger, P. J. (2012). “The Influence of Involvement, Following Sport and Fan Identification on Fan Loyalty: An Australian Perspective”. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship. 13(3), 220-234.
Swart, K., George, R., Cassar, J., & Sneyd, C. (2018). “The 2014 FIFA World CupTM: Tourists’ satisfaction levels and likelihood of repeat visitation to Rio de Janeiro”. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 8, 102-113.
Triantafillidou, A., & Petala, Z. (2016). “The role of Sea-Based Adventure Experiences in Tourists’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions”. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 33(sup1), 67-87.
Tzetzis, G., Alexandris, K., & Kapsampeli, S. (2014). “Predicting visitors’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions from service quality in the context of a small-scale outdoor sport event”. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 5(1), 4-21.
Weed, M., & Bull, C. (2004). Sport Tourism: Participants, policies and providers. Routledge.
Wong, I. A., & Tang, S. L. W. (2016). “Linking Travel Motivation and Loyalty in Sporting Events: The Mediating Roles of Event Involvement and Experience, and the Moderating Role of Spectator Type”. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 33(1), 63-84.
Wong, I. A., Xu, Y. H., Tan, X. S., & Wen, H. (2018). “The boundary condition of travel satisfaction and the mediating role of destination image: The case of event tourism”. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 25(2), 207-224.
Yazıcı, T., Koçak, S., & Altunsöz, I. H. (2017). “Examining the effect of experiential marketing on behavioral intentions in a festival with a specific sport event”. European Sport Management Quarterly. 17(2), 171-192.
Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). “An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model”. Tourism Management. 26(1), 45-56.
Yoshida, M., & James, J. D. (2010). “Customer Satisfaction with Game and Service Experiences: Antecedents and Consequences”. Journal of Sport Management. 24(3), 338-361.
Yusof, A., Omar-Fauzee, M. S., Shah, P. M., & Geok, S. K. (2009). “Exploring Small-Scale Sport Event Tourism in Malaysia”. Research Journal of International Studies. (9), 47-58.