Identifying and prioritizing the factors affecting the management of online relationships on tourists in uncertain conditions

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor and Faculty Member of Management Department of Alzahra University

2 Ph.D. candidate in Business Administration/Marketing Management, Alzahra University

3 Ph.D. candidate in Business Administration/International Marketing Management, Alzahra University



Due to the insufficient internal research in presenting the model of online CRM in Iran, this study aimed to explore the factors affecting this issue and the relationships between them. Customers in the Iranian tourism industry have been exposed to uncertainty by using the gray Dematel method. This research is a purposive, descriptive-analytical study and is one of the exploratory studies on qualitative and quantitative mixing. Document libraries and scrolling methods have been used to collect the combined information. The statistical population of this study was experts in the tourism industry and online communication field. The statistical sample in the study consisted of 20 people selected by the snowball method. Content validity and face validity of the theoretical model of research have been confirmed by experts and parallel coding method has been used to control the reliability of extractive conceptual structures.Findings from the implementation of the gray Dematel method made it clear that among all the variables and factors extracted in the literature, content marketing variables in cyberspace, utilizing self-service technologies and culture were, respectively, the most important variables influencing the model. Finally, electronic word of mouth marketing, tourism relationship management performance and tourist loyalty, respectively,have been the most important influencing variables in the present study.Thus, the main causal relationship was identified among the most important variables forming the model of online relationship management with customers in the Iranian tourism industry.


سنگری، نگین، صابریان، فاطمه و کمپانی، مژگان (1398). بازاریابی محتوا. تهران: انتشارات ادیبان روز.
کاتلر، فیلیپ (1395). بازاریابی گردشگری و مهماننوازی. ترجمۀ مسعود کیماسی، سیدحسن موسوی خادم و نیلوفر رضایی. تهران: انتشارات مهکامه.
ناظمی، آسیه و گرجی، فاطمه (1393). مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری (از نظریه تا اجرا) CRM همراه با بررسی راهحلهای نرم‌افزاری. تهران: انتشارات نیاز دانش.
نیومن، ویلیام لاورنس (1395). روش‌های پژوهشهای اجتماعی: رویکردهای کمّی و کیفی. جلد دوم. ترجمۀ ابوالحسن فقیهی و عسل آغاز. چاپ سوم. تهران: نشر ترمه با همکاری انجمن علوم مدیریت تهران.
Bai, C., & Sarkis, J. (2013). “A grey-based DEMATEL model for evaluating business process management critical success factors”. International Journal of Production Economics. 146(1), 281-292.
Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Tetreault, M. S. (1990). “The service encounter: diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents". Journal of Marketing. 54(1), 71-84.‏
Bitner, M. Jo (1990). “Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses”. Journal of Marketing. 54(2), 69–82.
Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Mohr, L. A. (1994). “Critical service encounters: The employee's viewpoint”. Journal of Marketing. 58(4), 95-106.‏
Bitner, M. J., Ostrom, A. L., & Meuter, M. L. (2002). “Implementing successful self-service technologies”. Academy of Management Perspectives. 16(4), 96–108.
Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M., & Johnston, W. J. (2005). “A Customer Relationship Management Roadmap: What is Known, Potential Pitfalls, and Where to Go”. Journal of Marketing. 69(4), 155-166.
Bowen, J. T., & Chen, S. L. (2001). “The relationship between customer loyalty and customer satisfaction”. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13(5), 213-217.
Chang, H. H., Fu, C. S., Fang, P. W., & Cheng, Y. C. (2016). “The effects of relationship maintenance and relationship investment on self-service technology relationship performance”. Information Technology & People, 29(3), 496–526.
Chen, F. H., Hsu, T. S., & Tzeng, G. H. (2011). “A balanced scorecard approach to establish a performance evaluation and relationship model for hot spring hotels based on a hybrid MCDM model combining DEMATEL and ANP”. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 30(4), 908-932.
Copas, E. M. (1984). “Critical Requirements for Cooperating Teachers”. Journal of Teacher Education. 35(6), 49–54.
Fuentes Sanchez, J. D. (Licensed To) . (2013). “Guide to the project Management body of knowledge”. Project Management Institute, PMBoK Gide, Pennsylvania USA. 3(8), 89-92.
Garrido-Moreno, A., García-Morales, V. J., Lockett, N., & King, S. (2018). “The missing link: Creating value with Social Media use in hotels”. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 75, 94-104.
Gilbert, D. C. (1996). “Relationship marketing and airline loyalty schemes”. Tourism Management, 17(8), 575-582.
Grove, S. J., & Fisk, R. P. (1997). “The impact of other customers on service experiences: A critical incident examination of ‘getting along’”. Journal of Retailing. 73(1), 63-85
Halligan, B., & Shah, D. (2009). Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google, Social Media, and Blogs. John Willey & Sons. Inc. (Wiley).
Hennig-Thurau, T., & Hansen, U. (2000). “Relationship Marketing—Some Reflections on the State-of-the-Art of the Relational Concept”. In Relationship Marketing. (pp. 3-27). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Hilton, T., Hughes, T., Little, E., & Marandi, E. (2013). "Adopting self-service technology to do more with less". Journal of Services Marketing. 27(1), 3–12.
Hong-kit Yim, F., Anderson, R. E., & Swaminathan, S. (2013). “Customer Relationship Management: Its Dimensions and Effect on Customer Outcomes”. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 24(4), 263-278.
Hori, S., & Shimizu, Y. (1999). “Designing methods of human interface for supervisory control systems”. Control Engineering Practice. 7(11), 1413-1419.
Iacobucci, D., Ostrom, A., & Grayson, K. (1995), “Distinguishing Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: TheVoice of the Consumer”. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 4(3), 277–303.
Jassbi, J., Mohamadnejad, F., & Nasrollahzadeh, H. (2011). “A Fuzzy DEMATEL framework for modeling cause and effect relationships of strategy map”. Expert Systems with Applications. 38(5), 5967-5973.
Johnson, M. S., Sivadas, E., & Garbarino, E. (2008). “Customer satisfaction, perceived risk and affective commitment: An investigation of directions of influence”. Journal of Services Marketing. 22(5), 353–362.
Kabir, M. A., Kawsar Jahan, M., Adnan, N., & Khan, N. (2012). “Business Model of E-Tourism for Developing Countries”. International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, 3(1), 30-34.
Keaveney, S. M. (1995). “Customer Switching Behavior in Service Industries: An Exploratory Study”. Journal of Marketing. 59(2), 71–82.
Kumar, V., Andrew Petersen, J., & Leone, R. P. (2010). “Driving Profitability by Encouraging Customer Referrals: Who, When and How”. Journal of Marketing. 74(5), 1–17.
Kusari, S., Hoeffler, S., & Iacobucci, D. (2013). “Trusting and Monitoring Business Partners throughout the Relationship Life Cycle”. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing. 20(3), 119–138.
Latham, G. P., & Saari, L. M. (1984), “Do people do what they say? Further studies on the situational interview”. Journal of Applied Psychology. 69(4), 569–73.
Libai, B., Muller, E., & Peres, R. (2013), “Decomposing the Value of Word-of-Mouth Seeding Programs: Acceleration versus Expansion”. Journal of Marketing Research. 50(2), 161–176.
Lin, C. L., & Tzeng, G. H. (2009). “A value-created system of science (technology) park by using DEMATEL”. Expert Systems with Applications. 36(6), 9683-9697.
Liu, S. (2012). “The impact of forced use on customer adoption of self-service technologies”. Computers in Human Behavior. 28(4), 1194–1201.
Malhotra, N. K., & Peterson, M., & Kleiser, S. B. (1999). “Marketing Research: A State-of-the-Art Review and Directions for the Twenty-First Century”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 27(2), 160-183.
Malthouse, E. C., Haenlein, M., Skiera, B., Wege, E., & Zhang, M. (2013). “Managing Customer Relationships in the Social Media Era: Introducing the Social CRM House. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 27(4), 270-280.
Mang'unyi, E. E., Khabala, O. T., & Govender, K. K. (2018). “Bank customer loyalty and satisfaction: the influence of virtual e-CRM”. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies. 9(2), 250-265.
Melián-González, S., & Bulchand-Gidumal, J. (2016). “A model that connects information technology and hotel performance”. Tourism Management. 53, 30-37.
Meuter , M. L., Ostrom, A. L., Roundtree, R. I., & Bitner, M. J. (2000). “Self-service Technologies: Understanding Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters”. Journal of Marketing. 64(3), 50–64.
Pappas, N. (2016). “Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behavior”. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 29, 92–103.
Pollock, N. (2003) ‘The ‘‘Self-Service’’ Student: Building Enterprise-wide Systems into Universities’. Prometheus 21(1): 101– 119, p. 105.
Rahimi, R., & Gunlu, E. (2016). “Implementing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in hotel industry from organizational culture perspective: Case of a chain hotel in the UK”. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 28(1), 89-112.
Reyes, F., Cerpa, N., Candia-Véjar, A., & Bardeen, M. (2011). “The optimization of success probability for software projects using genetic algorithms”. Journal of Systems and Software. 84(5), 775-785.
Sagib, G. K., & Zapan, B. (2014). “Bangladeshi mobile banking service quality and customer satisfaction and loyalty”. Management & Marketing. 9(3), 331–346.
Sangpikul, A. (2018). “The effects of travel experience dimensions on tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: the case of an island destination”. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 12(1), 106-123.
Schmitt, P., Skiera, B., & Van den Bulte, C. (2011), “Referral Programs and Customer Value”. Journal of Marketing. 75(1), 46–59.
Seyed-Hosseini, S. M., Safaei, N., & Asgharpour, M. J. (2006). “Reprioritization of failures in a system failure mode and effects analysis by decision making trial and evaluation laboratory technique”. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 91(8), 872-881.
Shieh, J. I., Wu, H. H., & Huang, K. K. (2010). “A DEMATEL method in identifying key success factors of hospital service quality”. Knowledge-Based Systems. 23(3), 277-282.
Sprague, R. H. & McNurlin, B. C. (1993). Information Systems Management in Practice. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Trusov, M., Bucklin, R. E., & Pauwels. K. (2009), “Effects of Word-of-Mouth versus Traditional Marketing: Findings from an Internet Social Networking Site”. Journal of Marketing. 73(5), 90–102.
Udunuwara, M. (2015). Customer relationship management (CRM) of hotels in the context of variety ـ seeking behaviour (VSB). (This thesis is posted at Research Online).
Villanueva, J., Yoo, S., & Hanssens, D. M. (2008), “The Impact of Marketing-Induced versus Word-of-Mouth Customer Acquisition on Customer Equity Growth”. Journal of Marketing Research. 45(1), 48–59.
White, F. M., & Locke, E. A. (1981). “Perceived Determinants of High and Low Productivity in Three Occupational Groups: A Critical Incident Study”. Journal of Management Studies. 18(4), 375–388.
Wu, S. I., & Li, P. C. (2011). “The relationships between CRM, RQ, and CLV based on different hotel preferences”. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 30(2), 262-271.
Zhou, Q., Huang, W., & Zhang, Y. (2011). “Identifying critical success factors in emergency management using a fuzzy DEMATEL method”. Safety Science. 49(2), 243-252.