مدل‌سازی پیامدهای توسعه پایدارِ گردشگریِ فرهنگی؛ رویکرد آمیخته

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی فرهنگی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت جهانگردی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیارگروه مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی فرهنگی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه مدیریت آموزش عالی، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/jtd.2019.183458.1717

چکیده

توسعه پایدار نقطه ایده‌آل صنعت گردشگری و یکی از اهداف عینی این صنعت در قرن بیست و یکم محسوب می‌شود. گردشگری فرهنگی در صورت برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت ضعیف می‌‎تواند دارای جنبه‌های ناپایدار و پیامدهای جبران‌ناپذیری باشد. لذا بررسی عملکرد و پیامدهای آن در مقصدهای مختلف گردشگری ضرورت است. پژوهش‌های فراوانی در خصوص پیامدهای ناشی از توسعه پایدار گردشگری در مقصدهای فرهنگی انجام شده است. اما تاکنون پژوهش جامعی که دربرگیرنده‌ی کل این عوامل و شناسایی ارتباط میان آنها باشد، ارائه نشده است. هدف ، شناسایی پیامدهای ناشی از توسعه پایدار گردشگری فرهنگی با دید کل‌نگر و طراحی مدل در رابطه با ارتباطات میان آنهاست. این پژوهش، با تاکتیک آمیخته اکتشافی انجام شده به‌طوریکه در بخش کیفی، با روش مطالعه نظام‌مند فراترکیب؛ 43 کد اولیه، 3 مقوله فرعی و 3 مقوله اصلی؛ گردشگران، جامعه محلی و محیط‌زیست شناسایی و دسته‌بندی گردید. در مرحله کمّی با استفاده از تکنیک دلفی فازی و مدل‌سازی ساختاری-تفسیری، شاخص‌های شناساسایی شده فازی‌سازی و روابط بین شاخص‌ها تعیین و بصورت یکپارچه تحلیل نمودیم. برای مدل‌سازی از پرسشنامه‌ای به منظور استفاده از نظرات 11 خبره در زمینه گردشگری فرهنگی با روش نمونه‌گیری، هدفمند و گلوله برفی بهره بردیم. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، منجر به دسته‌بندی پیامدهای ناشی از توسعه پایدار گردشگری در مقصدهای فرهنگی و طراحی مدل بر این اساس در شش سطح شد. در نهایت، به تفسیر مدل و تجزیه و تحلیل سطوح مدل و ارتباطات میان ابعاد آن پرداخته و راهکارهایی جهت پایداری پیامدهای مثبت و جلوگیری از اثرات منفی در مقصدهای فرهنگی ارائه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling the consequences of Sustainable development of cultural tourism: a mixed method

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohanna nikbin 1
  • hamid Zargham boroujeni 2
  • Seyedreza Salehiamiri 3
  • Kamran Mohammadkhani 4
  • farhad ghaffari 5
1 islamic azad university
2 Department of tourism management, faculty of management and accounting, Allmeh Tabataba’i University,Tehran,iran.
3 Associate professor, Department of Cultural Managment, Faculty of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate professor, Higher Education Administration Department, Faculty of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
5 Associate professor, Department of Economy, Faculty of Management and Economics, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Sustainable development is the ultimate of tourism industry and one of its objectives in the 21st century. Cultural tourism can lead to irreparable consequences and unsustainability if planned and managed poorly; and hence the importance of studying its performance and consequences at different tourism destinations. Numerous studies have been done on the consequences of sustainable tourism development in cultural destinations. However, no comprehensive study that includes all these factors and identifies their relationships has been presented. Adopting a holistic perspective, this study aims to identify the consequences of cultural tourism sustainable development and develop a model of their relationships. This study is performed using an explorative mixed method. In its qualitative phase, 43 primary codes were identified via a systematic meta-synthesis analysis, which were grouped into 3 minor and 3 major categories of tourists, host community, and the environment. Employing a fuzzy Delphi method and an interpretative structural modeling approach at the quantitative phase, the identified indexes were converted to fuzzy values and their relationships were discovered and analyzed entirely. In order to use the opinions of 11 cultural tourism experts in modeling, a questionnaire was used. The experts were selected purposively using a snowball sampling technique. The study results led to the categorization of sustainable tourism development at cultural destinations and a six-level model accordingly. Finally, the model is interpreted and its levels and the relationships among its dimensions are analyzed; and suggestions are made for sustaining the positive consequences and preventing from the negative ones at cultural destinations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Consequence
  • Cultural Tourism
  • Sustainable tourism development
  • Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM)
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